Achieving End-to-End Testing with Playwright


Playwright is a modern automation testing framework for web applications. Playwright lets the testers test web applications on several web browsers through a single API. It supports programming languages like Python, Java, C# and Node.js. Microsoft developed The Playwright automation testing, especially for browser testing and web scraping. It is mainly used for end-to-end testing, including UI and API testing in web applications.

Playwright automation framework was released in 2020; it is relatively new to the market compared to other automated testing frameworks. Even though it is new, Playwright started to gain popularity because of its efficient assistance in cross-browser testing and continuous updation of the framework based on user feedback.

This blog lets us understand how to perform end-to-end automation testing with the Playwright framework.

Playwright Framework Overview

Playwright automation testing is specifically designed to automate the testing functionalities of web applications. It supports all modern search engines like Chrome, WebKit, and Firefox. The framework also provides cross-platform features enabling testers to test the web application on various platforms like Windows, IOS, and Linux. Playwright automation can also be integrated with the continuous integration and deployment of DevOps pipelines. 

Playwright supports native mobile app-emulation; the same search engine works on the local machine and cloud platforms like LambdaTest. This allows the Playwright framework to deliver fast and parallelized automation in local and cloud testing environments.

LambdaTest is an AI-powered test execution and orchestration platform that empowers developers and testers to perform automation testing seamlessly on over 3000+ real browsers and operating system combinations.

The Playwright framework is popular among testers because it can support modern web browser architecture and doesn’t have in-process test runner limitations.

What is End-to-end testing?

In software testing, end-to-end testing refers to a process that ensures validations of applications’ functionality and performance from the beginning stage to an endpoint within the scope of the entire software application development lifecycle. The end-to-end testing in the Playwright framework simply tests all the web application components by creating a real-world testing scenario. 

The Architecture of the Playwright Framework

To perform the end-to-end testing with the Playwright, it is important to understand how the Playwright’s architecture works.  Playwright architecture is designed to support the modern web browser architecture; unlike Selenium, the playwright uses a web socket to communicate with end browsers to send and receive requests. So, there are four components in the architecture of the playwright framework. They are

  • Client: The client sends the requests with the help of different programming languages such as Java, Python, JavaScript, etc. 
  • Sever: The Playwright frameworks can communicate with clients and multiple web browsers. To communicate with Chromium, the Playwright automation testing framework uses Chrome DevTools Protocol (CDP), and for other web browsers such as Firefox and WebKit, it implements a protocol similar to Chrome DevTools Protocol. 
  • Web Socket: The web socket connection between the Playwright server and client can be made by implementing the web socket handshake process.  In Playwright, the message sent to the client will have low latency due to its open connection. The web socket connection in Playwright uses the Web socket communication protocol that can provide a full-duplex communication channel over a single TCP connection. 
  • Client Server Communication: Once the automation testing is implemented in Playwright, the code will be converted into JSON format and sent to the Playwright server using web socket protocol. 

The Key Steps to Implement End-to-End Testing With Playwright

These are the key steps to implementing end-to-end automation testing with the Playwright framework.

Setting Up the Framework

Following these steps, you can establish a foundation for the Playwright’s end-to-end testing.

  • Language Selection: Choose a programming language from the supported options, such as JavaScript, TypeScript, or Python, based on your familiarity and project requirements.
  • Configuration: Configure the Playwright framework after installation according to your testing requirements. Specify details like the target browser and context settings, and choose between headless or headful mode for execution and visual validation. Then, Integrate the playwright framework in your project.
  • Browser Selection: The playwright framework supports various browsers. Choose browsers that align with your application’s target audience to ensure cross-browser compatibility and enhance the overall reliability of your application.
  • Dependency Management: Stay informed about Playwright framework version updates and dependencies. Check for updates and install them in your testing environment to enjoy the latest features, bug fixes, and enhancements.

Creating Test Scenarios

Creating a test scenario is an important phase of the end-to-end testing process with Playwright. A test scenario describes a set of actions that a user may perform inside the web application. 

Identify Preconditions: Specify any preconditions necessary for the test scenario. This could include the application’s initial state, such as being logged in or having certain data pre-populated.

Break down the test scenario into individual steps. Each step represents a specific action that the automated test will perform. For example:

  1. Open the browser and navigate to the application URL.
  2. Log in with valid credentials.
  3. Navigate to a specific page or section.
  4. Interact with form elements, buttons, or other UI components.
  5. Perform specific actions, such as submitting a form or clicking on links.
  6. Verify the presence of expected elements on the page.

Incorporate Data Inputs: Consider incorporating data inputs if your test scenario involves working with dynamic data. This could include testing scenarios with different input data sets to ensure robustness.

Handle Asynchronous Operations: Web applications often involve asynchronous operations such as AJAX requests or animations. Ensure your test scenario includes appropriate waits or synchronization mechanisms to handle such operations, preventing race conditions.

Add Assertions: Define assertions to validate the expected outcomes of the test scenario. Assertions help ensure that the web application behaves as intended. For example

  • Verify the successful submission of a form.
  • Confirm the presence of specific elements on the page.
  • Check for error messages in case of invalid inputs.

Executing Tests

With well-defined test scenarios, it’s time to implement the Playwright framework and run your tests. This phase involves executing the test scripts you’ve prepared to see how well your application performs under different scenarios. Here’s how to approach the execution of tests using Playwright:

Command Execution

Playwright provides straightforward commands for executing your test scripts. Use the relevant commands to initiate the testing process depending on your chosen programming language. These commands will trigger Playwright to interact with your application, mimicking user actions and validating expected outcomes.

Browser Automation

During test execution, observe how the Playwright automates interactions with the chosen browser. It will navigate through your application, interact with buttons and forms, and perform other actions as specified in your test scenarios. Pay attention to the browser instances launched by Playwright and how they simulate real user behavior.

Validation and Assertion

As the Playwright automation testing framework runs through your test scenarios, it will validate whether the actual outcomes match your expected results. Utilize assertion techniques to ensure that specific elements on your web pages are present, accurate, and behave as intended. This step is crucial for identifying deviations from the expected behavior and catching potential bugs.

Analyzing Test Results

Once you have executed your tests, the next crucial step is to analyze the results. Here’s how you can effectively analyze test results with Playwright:

Reviewing Test Reports: The playwright generates comprehensive test reports that document the details of the test execution. These reports include information on which test cases passed, which failed, and any errors encountered during the process. Take the time to carefully review these reports to gain an overall understanding of the test outcomes.

Capturing Screenshots and Videos: The playwright framework can capture screenshots and videos during automation testing. These visual data can help understand the application’s state at the time of failure. You can use them during the debugging process to identify the origin of the issue.

Logging and Console Output: Examine the logs and console output generated during automation testing The playwright framework provides detailed logging information that can offer additional context about the actions performed during testing. Console output can highlight JavaScript errors or unexpected behaviors encountered during the test run.

Iterative Improvement: Test analysis is an iterative process. As you identify and address issues from one test run, update your test scenarios and scripts accordingly. This iterative improvement cycle ensures that your test suite evolves with your web application, providing ongoing validation of new features and changes.

Collaboration with the Development Team:  Establish collaboration between the testing and development teams. Communicate the issues discovered during automation testing and provide detailed information from the test reports. Collaborative efforts help improve debugging, leading to faster fixing time for identified issues.

Continuous Integration: Integrate Playwright tests into a continuous integration pipeline. Running tests automatically with each code commit ensures potential issues are identified early in the development cycle. This integration also promotes a consistent and reliable testing process in the overall software development lifecycle.

Benefits of Playwright for End-to-End Testing:

The playwright framework offers several advantages for effective end-to-end testing. 

  • Playwright supports multiple browsers, ensuring a consistent user experience across different browser environments.
  • Playwright is designed for speed and reliability and facilitates rapid test execution, which is crucial for maintaining a responsive development workflow.
  • Playwright provides flexibility by allowing tests to run in headless mode for faster execution or in the headful mode for visual validation during debugging.
  • Playwright offers a well-documented, making it accessible for developers and testers with clear guidance and examples in the official documentation.
  • For seamless integration with Playwright, developers can choose their preferred programming language, like JavaScript, TypeScript, or Python.
  • Playwright facilitates effective debugging through features like screenshots and video capture during test execution and in identifying issues.


In conclusion, Playwright emerges as a versatile solution for end-to-end testing, providing efficient automation across multiple browsers and platforms. The Playwright automation testing framework supports various programming languages, provides comprehensive documentation, and has integration capabilities with continuous integration pipelines, contributing to its growing popularity among testers. With a focus on speed, reliability, and flexibility, Playwright provides seamless execution and effective debugging, ultimately ensuring a consistent and reliable testing process throughout the software development lifecycle.